Analiza dobra w perspektywie etyki fundamentalnej i etyki sygetyczno-apofatycznej
Analysis of good in perspective of fundamental ethics and of sigetic and apophatic ethics
Fundamental ethics as the theory of morality, examining good at the factual and metaphysical level, consists of several levels. The first of these is datum morale, morality given in experience, so to speak originally. From the second level there begins a level of the theory, the description and explanation of morality that runs bipolar and contains the level of phenomenology of morality and metaphysics of morality. The third level, meta-theoretical, is the study of the methodological status of phenomenology and metaphysics of morality and the relation between them. This is where a dualistic nature of fundamental ethics was detected. The question of good at each of different levels will take on different meanings and significance that have been only indicated in this article. Generally, for the metaphysical foundation of morality it is possible to regard Being, meeting with the Other as Another is a foundation of moral experience, and values constitute relationally understood content of moral experience. Axiological and personalistic moments are bound by the category of a situation morally relevant introduced above. Research on fundamental ethics leads to discoveries in morality itself, as well as in philosophy of morality, of the space of inexpressibility, and the inalienable role of silence. It is associated with reflection on the possibilities, but also on radical limits of methods used in ethics. Silence in the face of good, silence about good, the inscrutability of good, designate the limits of reflection within the framework of sigetic and apophatic ethics.