The article aims to analyse selected attention processes concerning learning a foreign language, emphasising the possibility of formulating a pedagogical instruction resulting from the knowledge about attention. Recognising the student’s information processing mechanism as the teacher’s workplace, one must also recognise that the teacher’s knowledge of the processes taking place in it becomes an indisputable necessity. This article presents the concept of the attention filter in connection with the levels of information processing. Also, it refers to the concept of Kahneman’s attention resources management, each time trying to connect theoretical considerations with the possibility of their application in the school environment. The subject of the considerations was also involuntary and voluntary attention in language education processes, the hypothesis of conscious perception, individual differences and the relationship between attention and motivation. Theoretical considerations have become the starting point for application conclusions.