Przejdź do głównego menu Przejdź do sekcji głównej Przejdź do stopki


Tom 64 (2022)

Rubber stamp impressions: A study of defects and their significance in questioned document examination

7 marca 2023


The sole objective of a forensic document examiner is to assist in discovering and proving the facts in any investigation or legal inquiry involving genuineness of a document or any part thereof. A document is usually questioned because its origin, content, or the circumstances and story of its production arouse serious suspicion as to its genuineness. It may also be adversely scrutinized simply because it displeases someone with its unexpected provisions, and a careful examination may show conclusively that the document is indeed genuine. The increasing use of many kinds of documents is among the characteristics of civilization. Taking into account the opportunities for fraud this offers and the imperfection of human nature, it is not strange that now and then a document appears which does not belong in the genuine class.

As it relates to document examination, rubber stamp identification is closely akin to handwriting and typewriting analysis. Identifying a particular stamp, type-, or handwriting and determining when it was performed, its possible source, and circumstances of production – these are the chief aims of any initial examination. Rubber stamps may be individualized at any stage of the manufacturing process, even back-tracking to imperfections in the metal typefaces, but more commonly, unique characteristics are the effect of use, misuse, wear, and even age of the stamp. The present study discusses the steps in manufacturing a rubber stamp and the causes of defects leading to its identification, as well as attempts to examine the stamp impressions on the basis of the defects induced by these factors.