So-called virilists, that is, deputies with a seat in the Seym by virtue of holding another office and not by being elected, were noted for the first time in the Galician National Seym established in 1861. They were one of the interest groups representing the world of science, that is, various universities and other scientific institutions. The practice of university officials being included in representative bodies was nothing new in the Austrian partition; it was already known in the Free City of Cracow. From 1861, the chancellors of the Jagiellonian University and Lviv University, and from 1900 also the rector of the Lviv Polytechnic and the president of the Polish Academy of Learning, were the whirlwinds in the Galician National Seym. Virilists not only represented their scientific institutions, but also had the same powers as other members of the National Seym. Thus, they were primarily politicians with specific views. In general, they enjoyed extremely high authority related to the function they held at the university. They also worked in parliamentary committees. Despite the archaic nature of the institution of virilists, the participation of university chancellors as whirlwinds in the works of the higher chambers of the parliament was usually envisaged in various legislative projects in the interwar period.