The main purpose of the research is to recognize and interpret Old Polish diarists’ reflections on language and local culture in a wider cultural perspective. Literary works by J.Ch. Pasek, J. So-bieski and some foreign authors who visited the Republic of Poland have been analyzed. Two ques-tions seem to be particularly interesting in the context of this theme: what features of local culture distinguished the Poles from people in other countries and regions in Europe in the 17th century and how these differences affected the contacts with the environment and the self-esteem of the protag-onists in each work. In view of the author’s own and other people’s opinions, a multiple image of the “Polish cultural code” has been revealed, whose elements were maintained in Polish customs and mentality for a long time.