Kazimierza Twardowskiego dyskusja z relatywizmem
Kasimir Twardowski’s discussion with relativism
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Kasimir Twardowski formulated several arguments against epistemological relativism. Their exceptional clarity and strong influence on the Lvov-Warsaw School are undisputed. The aim of this article is to examine if Twardowski’s arguments remain sound and relevant in contemporary discussions of relativism. The article presents a detailed reconstruction of the arguments, focusing on Twardowski’s famous essay “On so-called relative truths”, but also referring to several of his less-known works where some additional arguments, as well as interesting remarks regarding the relation of relativism to subjectivism and scepticism can be found. In the second section, a critical analysis of Twardowski’s position is conducted. Theoretical background of Twardowski’s alethic antirelativism is examined: his theory of judgment and views on the relation between thought and language are in focus. The author also attemempts to investigate how Twardowski’s arguments fare against several objections based on contemporary relativistic theories and remarks.