The article is devoted to the little known question of the establishment of Polish schools in Barnaul operating in the 1940s. Some studies tackling the subject matter to some extent can already be found in Polish and Russian historiography. On the basis of the available material and literature the author of the article seeks to sum up the information about the Polish schools in Barnaul, capital of the Altai Krai, and to present the role and activity of Lidia Milewicz, a teacher, in the establishment and then provision of education. The author uses documents relating to school no. 2 for Polish children in Barnaul (record books, registers), currently kept in Warsaw’s Museum of Independence and made available to the author by Anna Milewska-Młynik, an employee of the museum. The documents were also an inspiration for the article. The author discusses some aspects of the establishment and functioning of educational facilities for Polish children. The schools made their contribution to and introduced national specificity into the school education system in the Altai Krai. The problem examined in the article should certainly be explored further through the use of new source material and expansion of the document base.